The double Olympic champion held off in the final straight Turkish pair Ali Kaya, Polat Kemboi and countryman Andy Vernon to win another European title in 28:08.11.
Vernon, hampered by backmarkers at the start of the final lap, pipped the two Kenyan-born Turks to take silver, Kaya was third and Arikan, the defending champion, finished out of the medals.
It was a welcome win for the 31-year-old Farah in what has been a frustrating season.
"It meant a lot to me," Farah told reporters after adding to his 5 000 and 10 000 metres European golds in Barcelona in 2010 and his 5 000 metres title in Helsinki two years ago.
"I was really ill a few weeks ago but training has gone well.
"Winning the European Championships again really does mean a lot to me. I didn't want to let people down after missing the Commonwealth Games, it hasn't been easy."